Photo: public assembly to discuss protest grievances outside of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, June 2013.
For all of the fanfare about “the new forms of social movements and protests that are erupting in the world today,” (Castells 2013) journalist Bruno Garcia’s 2013 History Magazine retrospective reminds us to examine their disparate outcomes. The protests in Egypt, he observed, led to a military coup, while the demonstrations in Brazil resulted in little more than “the conviction of a homeless person.”
Castells, Manuel. 2013. Networks of Outrage and Hope: Social Movements in the Internet Age. Cambridge, UK: Polity.